Krzysztof Żuraw

Ports and Adapters in python

Let me explain a little bit what exactly ports and adapters design pattern is. According to this article (which by the way I strongly recommend to read) it is a way to separate business logic from user code.

What I mean by that? Let pretend that you want to create simple django application which connects to reddit using its API. Then app retrieves the content of search query provided by the user. After that user can save for later founded link. In this blog post, I will focus only on reddit API part. Normally you will write some module using request for retrieving search results from reddit. But what when it comes to testing such code? You mock requests calls or use responses library.

How do you do it in ports and adapters way? You will have one thing called port for all external connections. Throught this all requests to external APIs will be done because who knows if the reddit will not change to duckduckgo? In such case you add DuckDuckGo Adapter and you are all set. Because port don't care if there is Reddit adapter or DuckDuckGo adapter as long as it provides necessary methods. As I mentioned before, port is communicating only with adapters. And what is adapter? It is part of code designed only for calling in this case Reddit API and passing results. To test port you need fake adapter with all methods that original has. But how you test adapter? You will have to write integration tests.

Such design pattern is also called hexagonal architecture.

Hexagonal architecture
This is a picture presenting adapters and ports in my application

As you can see in above picture all connections to external APIs are made using ExternalAPIPort so this class in python knows only about the adapter and that it should have some search method for searching. How is it translating to code?


class ExternalAPIPort(object):

def __init__(self, adapter):
self.adapter = adapter

def search(self, query, *args, **kwargs):
return, *args, **kwargs)

As you can see port takes adapter in __init__. Then in search it uses adapter method for searching and passing results. I only needed the title of a post that comes from search so I generate them using generator expression. Moreover here we have contract that tell us that adapter has to have such method as search that uses query arguments (at least).

And how adapter look like?

import requests
import requests.auth

class RedditAdapter(object):
def __init__(
self, reddit_client_id, reddit_client_secret,
reddit_username, reddit_password
self.reddit_client_id = reddit_client_id
self.reddit_client_secret = reddit_client_secret
self.reddit_username = reddit_username
self.reddit_password = reddit_password
self.reddit_token = None

def authorize(self):
client_auth = requests.auth.HTTPBasicAuth(
post_data = {
"grant_type": "password",
"username": self.reddit_username,
"password": self.reddit_password
headers = {"User-Agent": "RedditAdapter/0.1 by Krzysztof Zuraw"}
response =
self.reddit_token = response.json()['access_token']

def search(self, query, subreddit=None):
headers = {
"Authorization": "bearer {token}".format(token=self.reddit_token),
"User-Agent": "RedditAdapter/0.1 by Krzysztof Zuraw"
response = requests.get(
restrict='on' if subreddit else 'off'
return response.json()

search_result = []
for result in raw_response['data']['children']:

return search_result

What is happening here? Start from init (line 6) which takes reddit_client_id and reddit_client_secret arguments. There are created by going to apps tab under preferences:

Reddit apps
Reddit apps

After that click on create new application on the end of the page and you will see something like this:

Reddit application creation
Reddit application creation

By clicking create app you will see that reddit_client_secret is secret and reddit_client_id is string under personal use script.

Reddit application secrets
Reddit application secrets

After initialization, there is method called authorize (line 16) which takes care of proper authorization via Oauth2.

Lastly, there is search (line 35) which retrieves JSON response from reddit API from given subreddit or globally from all subreddits.

So how to test it?

First by creating FakeRedditAdapter:

"kind": "Listing",
"data": {
"facets": {},
"modhash": "",
"children": [
"kind": "t3",
"data": {
"domain": "domain",
"banned_by": None,
"media_embed": {},
"subreddit": "django",
"selftext_html": None,
"selftext": "",
"likes": None,
"suggested_sort": None,
"user_reports": [],
"secure_media": None,
"link_flair_text": None,
"id": "id123",
"from_kind": None,
"gilded": 0,
"archived": False,
"clicked": False,
"report_reasons": None,
"author": "author",
"media": None,
"score": 20,
"approved_by": None,
"over_18": False,
"hidden": False,
"num_comments": 4,
"thumbnail": "",
"subreddit_id": "id_sub",
"hide_score": False,
"edited": False,
"link_flair_css_class": None,
"author_flair_css_class": None,
"downs": 0,
"secure_media_embed": {},
"saved": False,
"removal_reason": None,
"stickied": False,
"from": None,
"is_self": False,
"from_id": None,
"permalink": "/r/django/comments/link",
"locked": False,
"name": "t3_4b7lzf",
"created": 1458511233,
"url": "",
"author_flair_text": None,
"quarantine": False,
"title": "Post title",
"created_utc": 1458482433,
"distinguished": None,
"mod_reports": [],
"visited": False,
"num_reports": None,
"ups": 20
"after": None,
"before": None

class FakeRedditAdapter(object):
def authorize(self):
return 'oauth2-authorized-key'

def search(self, query, subreddit=None):
search_result = []
for result in REDDIT_RESPONSE['data']['children']:
return search_result

As you can see FakeRedditAdapter returns hardcoded response from reddit API that can be used in test:

import pytest

from tests.utils import FakeRedditAdapter

from reddit_stars.external_api_port import ExternalAPIPort

def reddit_port():
port = ExternalAPIPort(adapter=FakeRedditAdapter())
return port

def test_reddit_search(reddit_port):
assert list('test_search')) == ['Post title']

I briefly remind you what is purpose of application build in this series: user will log in, then search with keyword so he can save any search result to database for read it later.

I decided to first implement search mechanism for Reddit. This is what I will write today. Search request will be sent via GET. First, I need some form to handle this:

from django import forms
from django.conf import settings

from external_api.external_api_port import instantiated_port

class RedditSearchForm(forms.Form):
query = forms.CharField(label='search query', max_length=100)

def perform_search(self):
search_result =['query'])
return search_result

I defined simple form that has only one field: query which is CharField field with label. My form has one method perform_search. In this method, I import instantiated reddit port that takes instance of reddit adapter with settings from django settings module. Idealy this adapter should be singleton class. This is how it looks in reddit_adapter:

from django.conf import settings

# reddit adapter class here ...

instantiated_adapter = RedditAdapter(

and in external_api_port:

from .reddit_adapter import instantiated_adapter

# port class here ...

instantiated_port = ExternalAPIPort(instantiated_adapter)

Lastly, I perform the search using the port and cleaned_data['query']. I have access to cleaned_data attribute after form validation which will be shown in the view. At the end of perform_search I return search results. These results are processed further in view:

from django.views.generic.edit import FormView
from django.http import HttpResponse
from django.shortcuts import render
from .forms import RedditSearchForm

class RedditSearchView(FormView):
template_name = 'search/index.html'
form_class = RedditSearchForm
success_url = 'add-to-favourites'
search_result = None

def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
form = self.form_class(self.request.GET or None)
if form.is_valid():
self.search_result = form.perform_search()
return self.render_to_response(self.get_context_data(form=form))

def get_context_data(self, **kwargs):
context = super(RedditSearchView, self).get_context_data(**kwargs)
if self.search_result:
'search_result': self.search_result,
'sucess': True
return context

Let begin from get method: this method is called every time get request is performed by the user. How to ensure that? I used method parameter in html:

<form method="get" class="form" role="form">
{{ form }}
<input type="submit" class="btn btn-primary" value="Search" />

In get method I get the form for given request.GET. On this form I call form.is_valid() to get access to cleaned_data. After that I have search results so I can insert them to html. It is done via get_context_data method when I get my basic context calling super. And if there was search performed I update context with search results and I tell my html to render them in one template.

Such updated context is taken by django and rendered to full html. Key success is present because I got if statement in html template which allows me to render results on the same page that search was performed:

{% if sucess %}
{% for item in search_result %}
<li>{{ item }}</li>
{% endfor %}
{% else %}
<!--- form here ---!>

And that is all for search view. In next post I will take care of saving results to database. Code for this you can find under this repo.

I made a reddit search view for the specific keyword that display results to the user. To save them to read later I need database representation of link from reddit:

from django.db import models

class RedditLink(models.Model):
title = models.CharField(max_length=250)
is_favourite = models.BooleanField(default=False)

def save(self, *args, **kwargs):
if self.is_favourite:
super(RedditLink, self).save(*args, **kwargs)

I made my own save because I only need links that are favorite in my database. In addition, I have multiple reddit links on my search page to save. So how to handle multiple forms of the same model in django? The answer is to use Fromset. What is it? It is module provided by django for creation multiple forms. How to use it? Look at

from django import forms
from .models import RedditLink

RedditAddToFavouritesFormset = forms.modelformset_factory(
fields=('title', 'is_favourite'),

I used something called forms.modelformset_factory which is a function to produce fromset from model. So I provided model name with fields to calling this function. What is more, I add additional argument extra for creating more than one form in formset. How to use newly created RedditAddToFavouritesFormset? In views:

from django.views.generic import CreateView
from django.http import HttpResponseRedirect
from django.core.urlresolvers import reverse_lazy
from .forms import RedditAddToFavouritesFormset

class RedditAddToFavourites(CreateView):
template_name = 'search/index.html'
success_url = reverse_lazy('main_page')

def post(self, request, *args, **kwags):
reddit_links_formset = RedditAddToFavouritesFormset(request.POST)
if reddit_links_formset.is_valid():
return HttpResponseRedirect(success_url)
return self.render_to_response(

I write RedditAddToFavourites which is a subclass of CreateView. The main point for this view class is to create RedditLink instances from formset. So I override post method which is responsible for handling POST requests. At first I a create new instance of formset from the request. After validation if everything was filled in correctly by the user. If so I save formset and create entries in database. Then HttpResponseRedirect redirect user to main page. If validation was incorrect I rerender template with form errors. Thanks to that my search/index.html looks as follows:

{% if sucess %}
<form method="post" action="{% url 'add_to_favourites' %}">
{% csrf_token %}
{{ reddit_links_formset }}
<input type="submit" class="btn btn-primary" value="Favourite" />
{% else %}

To insert values that are from search I have to instantiate formset with argument initial in search/ under get_context_data method:

reddit_links_formset = RedditAddToFavouritesFormset(
initial=[{'title': title} for title in self.search_result[:5]]

And that all! Right now when user type query to search bar and click search he or she is redirected to page with 5 forms that have initial title set. After that user select favorite links and saves them to database. But I see a problem here: first, I only display for user 5 forms with data from search results and I want it more, but it is what I will be taking care of in next blog post.

I really appreciate every comment that you have! You can reach me in any way - click icons at the bottom of this very page. Thank you for reading! Code for this you can find under this repo.

Changes from 23.05.16:

Changes from 07.06.16:

(Special thanks for pointing this to Mariusz)