What exactly is design by contract? What is good and what is bad in this approach? What are python libraries that provide support for such design? You can find all these answers in this blog series about contracts.
Recently I read a Pragmatic Programmer. In this book there is a chapter 21: Design by Contract that stays:
It is a simple yet powerful technique that focuses on documenting (and agreeing to) the rights and responibilites of software mdoules to ensure program correctness.
How to achieve this? There are 3 basic expectations of any given function/class:
- Preconditions: What are function requirements in order to be called
- Postconditions: What is class guaranteed to do
- Class invariants: Conditions that are true after execution of function/class
Let's move to the actual implementation in python. I found at least 3 libraries that are made to provide help while using contracts. I'll start from the first one: py.contracts.
To demonstrate how to use this library I'll reuse my old code from ports and apdaters series. There is a reddit port:
class ExternalAPIPort(object): def __init__(self, adapter): self.adapter = adapter def search(self, query, *args, **kwargs): return self.adapter.search(query, *args, **kwargs)
I want to make sure that query is a string. What is more, I want this string not to be empty. And I return search should return nested list. How do I contract it using py.contracts?
from contracts import contract # class ExternalAPIPort here @contract(query='str[>0]', returns='list(str)') def search(self, query, *args, **kwargs):
And messing around with wrong returns values gives you following errors:
contracts.interface.ContractNotRespected: Breach for return value of ExternalAPIPort:search(). Expected a list, got 'int'. checking: list(str) for value: Instance of <class 'int'>: 1
Right now I knew because of contract that this search method will take query parameter which has to be string with length more than 0 (precondition) and returns list of strings (postcondition).
The same can be accomplished with metaclasses:
from contracts import contract, ContractsMeta class BasePort(object): __metaclass__ = ContractsMeta @abstractmethod @contract(query='str[>0]', returns='list(str)') def search(self, query, *args, **kwargs): pass class ExternalAPIPort(BasePort): def search(self, query, *args, **kwargs): return self.adapter.search(query, *args, **kwargs)
This code will work for python 2. If you want to use ContractsMeta with python 3 you have to use function with_metaclass or simply write BasePort(object, metaclass=ContractsMeta):
from contracts import contract, ContractsMeta, with_metaclass class BasePort(with_metaclass(ContractsMeta, object)): @abstractmethod @contract(query='str[>0]', returns='list(str)') def search(self, query, *args, **kwargs): pass
What I like in this library is a possibility to disable contracts by calling contracts.disable_all() or using DISABLE_CONTRACTS environmental variable.
Unfortunately, py.contracts doesn't provide way to use invariants but you always can use assert.
That's all for this blog post! Feel free to comment and in next week I will look into another contract library in python.